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„Hemodynamic aspects of essential hypertension in humans” (angol nyelven). Essential hypertension, its treatment with Rauwolfia serpentina Benth. In order to form an unbiased and scientifically sound opinion on Rauwolfia’s value as a hypotensive agent, Vakil performed more critical analyses on the subject.18 Fifty patients were selected from a large number of patients with essential hypertension, who reported regularly at the clinic for treatment and who showed their willingness to cooperate. The author reviews the plant’s botany, chemistry, and pharmacology and provides a researched and documented method of action for the active ingredients. This action is largely irreversible. In 1954, after a trial of R. serpentina, used in conjunction with Veratrum viride, in 24 severely hypertensive patients, Joiner and Kauntze27 could not find demonstrable evidence of synergistic action.
Within a week of the start of serpina therapy, 77% of the hypertensive patients showed an average reduction of 13 mmHg (ranging from 2-38 mmHg) in systolic pressure, and 73% of patients showed an average drop of 6 mmHg (2-18 mmHg) in diastolic pressure.18 After 4 weeks of the serpina therapy, 85% of the hypertensive patients showed an average drop of 21 mmHg (ranging from 2-54 mmHg) in systolic pressure, and 81% of patients showed an average drop of 11 mmHg (ranging from 4-34 mmHg) in diastolic pressure. In 1941 and 1942, Chopra and his associates reported on the pharmacologic and toxic effects of Rauwolfia root extracts and of the individual alkaloids.11,12 They found the total alkaloid mixture, the alcoholic extracts, and serpentine-particularly the last-to possess hypotensive properties, while ajmaline and serpentinine were found to be hypertensive agents. In 1942, Paranjpe13 claimed, without any statistical support, improvement in cases of hypertension with the use of a tincture or alcoholic extract of the root of Rauwolfia. Reserpine is now accepted as a safe drug, having a place in the treatment of mild-to-moderate hypertension.
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We now largely understand the mechanism of action, the expected effects, and the indications of reserpine. Already in India, Rauwolfia root tablets were highly popular, and by the time of Vakil’s paper in 1949, around 90% of Indian doctors used it as a routine hypotensive agent; around 50 million tablets had been sold by a single manufacturing firm alone.18 However, the clinical efficacy of Rauwolfia in treating hypertension had not been scientifically demonstrated outside of India, and, until 1949-in spite of many remarkable clinical and pharmacological contributions on the subject in India-enthusiasm for Rauwolfia had remained strictly localized.
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However, the dose-related blood pressure reduction with this agent is not known. As pointed out previously, there was no effective hypotensive agent in use in the West before 1949. Undoubtedly, Vakil is to be credited with introducing Rauwolfia to the Western world, thereby giving it the 1st effective antihypertensive drug and enabling the elucidation of other therapeutic uses of Rauwolfia, such as the treatment of schizophrenia. Hypertension symptomes fatigue . Until 1949 and 1950-when Rauwolfia and the methonium group of antihypertensive agents, respectively, were first introduced to the Western world-hypertension management was merely supportive, comprising restriction of salt (and proteins and calories), psychotherapy (or reassurance), sedatives, regulation of mode of life, and symptomatic therapy when complications arose. More importantly, Rauwolfia opened the floodgates to more spirited research than ever before on other possible hypotensive agents.2 In 1950, the methonium group of drugs was introduced. Concurrently with the use of Rauwolfia in hypertension, its other therapeutic uses came to be appreciated. In Vakil, India had its 1st internationally successful clinical researcher, who, by adhering to the principles of research methodology, ensured the production and acceptance of scientifically tenable papers. Chopra and his associates (1933)8 observed the hypotensive, sedative, and hypnotic properties of the root of Rauwolfia in experimental animals.
Extracts of its different parts and of plants resembling to rauwolfia were used in Hindu medicine for snakebite, insomnia, insanity and many other diseases and complaints. Wang, J. The clinical examinations of Xue-Zhi-Kang in the treatment for hypercholesterolemia. Nevertheless, well over 30 years later, Christison, Kirch, and Wyatt,38, 39 on the basis of meta-analysis of 8 double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies, still suggest the use of reserpine as one of the alternative treatments in refractory schizophrenia. In this paper, Vakil summarized 10 years of his experience with Rauwolfia. Only patients with systolic blood pressures over 160 mmHg and diastolic pressures over 95 mmHg were included in the series. He concludes with the recommendation of use of low dose Rauwolfia (LDR) for suitable patients with hypertension. Shope was also honored, for his contributions to understanding infectious diseases. In the same year, Gupta, Kahali, and Dutt17 found that the crude resin isolated by Dymock in 1891 also possessed the sedative and hypnotic properties of the serpentina root. The importance of Vakil’s works on Rauwolfia is manifold.
Vakil’s efforts were widely recognized for their brilliance and demiurgic effects. New and more successful lines of treatment for both heart diseases and mental or emotional ailments quickly arose from the introduction of … Soon afterwards, Russian physician Nikolai Korotkoff discovered the sounds that can be heard with a stethoscope over the inner elbow while using a sphygmomanometer. Those with increased body fat are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes. The fifth and 15th authors assume responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of data reporting, and the first and ninth authors vouch for the fidelity of the analyses to the protocol. It is highly likely that without the stimulus provided by Vakil’s article, later workers would not have been motivated to explore these other possibilities which have proved so fruitful. Vakil, in 1949, published in the British Heart Journal the 1st clinical report on R. serpentina therapy to appear outside of India,18 which fired the imagination of the international research community.
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They were able to demonstrate, in experimental animals, a small drop in blood pressure, depression of the heart muscle, respiratory stimulation, and relaxation of smooth muscles, after the administration of Rauwolfia alkaloids. The author refutes the association between the plant and carcinogenicity and discusses the importance of correct dosing and of screening patients to minimize the occurrence of depression. It fell out of popularity when adverse side effects, including depression and cancer, became associated with it. The combination of reserpine, dihydroergocristine and a diuretic is still on the market (Brinerdin, Crystepin). Homeopathie hypertension . In the Ciba laboratories in Basel, Switzerland, Mueller, Schlittler and Bein analysed various rauwolfia alkaloids and published in 1952 the first complete report about their chemistry and pharmacology. Surgeon General as “trail-blazing and an epoch-making discovery.”1 In 1957, Rustom Jal Vakil received the prestigious Albert Lasker award for clinical medical research for “his brilliant and systematic studies on Rauwolfia in hypertension.” Vakil shared the award with Kline, Noce, Laborit, Deniker, and Lehmann, who were honored for their studies on reserpine and chlorpromazine.
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Bradycardia and lowering of diastolic pressure were observed in some of their patients. A paradigm shift is needed toward considering antihypertensive therapy for severely preeclamptic and eclamptic patients when systolic blood pressure reaches or exceeds 155-160 mm Hg. The composite primary outcome was pregnancy loss or high-level neonatal care for more than 48 hours during the first 28 postnatal days. Background: The effects of less-tight versus tight control of hypertension on pregnancy complications are unclear. Preexisting hypertension was defined as diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher before pregnancy or before 20 weeks 0 days of gestation. Methods: We performed an open, international, multicenter trial involving women at 14 weeks 0 days to 33 weeks 6 days of gestation who had nonproteinuric preexisting or gestational hypertension, office diastolic blood pressure of 90 to 105 mm Hg (or 85 to 105 mm Hg if the woman was taking antihypertensive medications), and a live fetus. Women were randomly assigned to less-tight control (target diastolic blood pressure, 100 mm Hg) or tight control (target diastolic blood pressure, 85 mm Hg).
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Objectives: To investigate the dose-related effect of reserpine on blood pressure, heart rate and withdrawals due to adverse events. With special emphasis on the plant’s role in treating high blood pressure, the author looks at medical uses of the plant, critically examining its adverse side effects, toxicology, and carcinogenicity. It was during the succeeding years that inferences from epidemiologic cohorts began to stream in, and the critical role played by the (even asymptomatic) elevation of the blood pressure in mortality trends was understood. In 1949, after years of scrupulous collation and analysis of data, he published a watershed paper on the antihypertensive properties of Rauwolfia serpentina and effected a paradigm shift in the management of hypertension.
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In the same year, reserpine was introduced under the name Serpasil in the treatment of hypertension, tachycardia and thyreotoxicosis. Around the same time, Gupta, Deb, and Kahali,15 in reporting the application of Rauwolfia in mental disorders, remarked on its distinct sedative effects and observed that in 1 case of epilepsy, there was marked hypotension and bradycardia that necessitated withdrawal of the drug. Thus, the hypotensive effects of the Rauwolfia root or its constituent individual alkaloids were firmly established by the mid-1950s. Rauwolfia was the world’s 1st successful blood-pressure-lowering agent, and its acceptance encouraged research scientists to pursue the development of other hypotensive drugs. We also traced citations in the reference sections of the retrieved studies. L hypertension arterielle . He was also a fine clinician with a remarkable gift for communication, be it with his patients, students, peers, or the lay public.
Rauwolfia serpentina is a safe and effective treatment for hypertension. The plant provides clinicians with a safe and effective adjunct to pharmaceuticals in the treatment of high blood pressure. Much of the credit for this goes to an Indian physician, Rustom Jal Vakil, of … Interestingly, at that time, the West did not have any effective blood-pressure-lowering agent for the treatment of hypertension.19 Indeed, many physicians continued to think of hypertension as a benign condition, not in need of therapy. As the years mounted, so did the number of studies corroborating the efficacy and safety of Rauwolfia in hypertension: Chakravarty and colleagues (1951),28 Vida (1952),29 Arnold and Bock (1953),30 Sarre (1953),31 and Klausgraber (1953),32 among others.
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It is difficult to think of a paper that has had a greater impact on the management of hypertension than Vakil’s contribution some forty years ago… Commending Vakil’s efforts in a letter to the National Medical Journal of India in 1988, D.M. Vakil’s efforts were invaluable to the Indian research environment. It blocks the uptake of biogenic amines (dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin) into the transmitter vesicles, and the storage there. In each case, after an initial examination and blood pressure measurement, the patient was kept on a sedative capsule for 2 weeks; the blood pressure was recorded again and accepted as the “pre-treatment” level. Omega-3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Selection criteria: Included studies were truly randomised controlled trials comparing reserpine monotherapy to placebo or no treatment in patients with primary hypertension. Ainsi, dans 30% des cas, les patients étaient par exemple assis les jambes croisées, ce qui augmente la pression artérielle – de 8 à 10 points de mesure pour les personnes qui ont de l’hypertension! Certaines erreurs commises lors de la mesure médicale auraient toutefois pu être évitées.
Si le tensiomètre (au mieux un appareil pour le haut du bras) indique des valeurs de 140/90 mmHg ou plus, vous devriez être alerté. D’une manière générale, les valeurs normales d’acide urique dans le sang sont les suivantes : entre 40 à 60 mg/L pour l’homme, entre 30 à 50 mg/L pour la femme et entre 25 à 40 mg/L pour l’enfant. Habituellement, les valeurs obtenues chez soi sont inférieures à celles relevées chez le médecin ou à la pharmacie. Ils surviennent chez un patient en insuffisance cardiaque gauche dont le cœur se fatigue à la faveur d’une infection ou d’un effort physique trop brutal. Les artères sont des vaisseaux robustes et élastiques qui se contractent à chaque battement du cœur.
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En cas de baisse modérée du débit cardiaque, l’organisme tend à s’adapter en préservant au maximum le débit sanguin vers les organes vitaux (cerveau et cœur). Ces cas sont très rares. Sport et tension artérielle . La nouvelle étude française, dirigée par le Dr Athanase Benetos, étend ces découvertes aux hommes âgés de 52 ans en moyenne. Par ailleurs, même les médecins ont du mal à mesurer la pression artérielle, comme l’a montré une étude réalisée dans 26 cabinets de médecins de famille de Genève en 2014. En comparaison avec deux spécialistes formés spécialement à la mesure de la pression artérielle, les médecins de famille se trompaient de 23 points en moyenne pour la valeur de pression artérielle supérieure, et d’une quinzaine de points pour la valeur de pression artérielle inférieure. Les abréviations courantes (sida, ECG, etc.) sont autorisées ; pour les autres moins connues, le terme entier doit précéder l’abréviation lors de sa première apparition dans le texte (sauf s’il s’agit d’une unité de mesure internationale).
Le prix oscille entre 20 et 200 €, les plus chers étant les modèles connectés et les moins chers, ceux à poignet. Il faut encourager la poursuite des activités quotidiennes avec les adaptations qui s’imposent, la meilleure activité physique étant orientée vers l’endurance : marche à pied, vélo promenade… Au début, il fallait pomper tellement fort sur le brassard que la circulation du sang vers le bras était coupée. La tubulure d’alimentation en air du brassard, doit être placée dans le prolongement de l’artère humérale, vers la paume ouverte de la main du patient. Qu’il s’agisse de l’ail noir, de l’extrait d’aubépine, des feuilles d’olivier, des oméga-3 du lin ou des polyphénols de la grenade, vous trouverez dans notre gamme le complément qu’il vous faut. Cependant il n’y a pas de preuves d’une influence du chocolat noir, riche en flavonoïdes, sur le risque de cancer. Une partie de notre population souffre de ces maladies ou facteurs de risque sans le savoir, faute de diagnostic.