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Magnesium, calcium, and potassium intake has been inversely related to blood pressure and hypertension in several observational studies,3-6 and some, though not all, randomized controlled trials have demonstrated reduction in blood pressure levels in persons receiving supplementation with these minerals alone or in combination.7-10 Sodium intake, however, has been positively associated with blood pressure, and there is evidence that reduced sodium intake leads to a modest reduction in blood pressure levels.11,12 Nevertheless, the question of whether magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium intake is associated with risk of stroke remains controversial. Even among stroke survivors, quality of life could be reduced substantially in many who are left with permanent disability. Diet was assessed at baseline using a validated self-administered food frequency questionnaire that included 276 food items and mixed dishes commonly consumed in Finland.14 The questionnaire was used with a portion-size color picture booklet of 122 photographs of foods, each with 3 to 5 different portion sizes. Participants were asked to report their average consumption and portion size for each food during the past year. Nutrient intake was calculated by multiplying the frequency of consumption of each food by the average nutrient content of the specified portion size. The salt used in cooking was included in the average recipes of mixed dishes as an ingredient, and the recipe file was used in all the nutrient calculations.

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Piloselle cellulite, dites au revoir à la cellulite et.. The amount of salt added at the table was not collected in the ATBC Study. Results After adjustment for age and cardiovascular risk factors, a high magnesium intake was associated with a statistically significant lower risk of cerebral infarction but not with intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhages. Besides a hypotensive effect, magnesium supplementation had favorable effects on plasma glucose, triglyceride, HDL, low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol levels in rats with chronic diabetes.22 There are also reports showing that magnesium deficiency increases the susceptibility of lipoproteins to peroxidation in animals.23 In cross-sectional studies, dietary magnesium intake has been found to be inversely associated with markers of systematic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, carotid artery thickness, fasting insulin and glucose concentrations, and the metabolic syndrome.24-26 Also, a meta-analysis of cohort studies showed that a high magnesium intake may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus,27 which in a recent large cohort study was associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke but not with hemorrhagic stroke.28 In our study, magnesium intake was inversely associated with risk of cerebral infarction but not with hemorrhagic stroke. At baseline, participants completed a questionnaire on background characteristics and medical, smoking, and physical activity histories.13 Height, weight, and blood pressure levels were measured, and a blood sample was drawn and stored at −70°C.

Multivariate models were further controlled for cardiovascular risk factors (alcohol intake, number of cigarettes smoked daily, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels, serum total and HDL cholesterol levels, histories of diabetes and coronary heart disease, and leisure-time physical activity) and total energy intake. The ATBC Study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, primary prevention trial that was designed to test whether the use of α-tocopherol (50 mg/d) or beta carotene (20 mg/d) could reduce lung cancer incidence in male smokers who were recruited from southwestern Finland between 1985 and 1988.13 The cohort consisted of 29 133 men, aged 50 to 69 years, who smoked 5 or more cigarettes per day at baseline.

Conclusion These findings in male smokers suggest that a high magnesium intake may play a role in the primary prevention of cerebral infarction. We used prospective data from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study13 to examine the association of magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium intake with risk of stroke in Finnish male smokers. All nutrients were energy adjusted using the residual method.18 Magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium intake was categorized into quintiles based on the distribution among the study population. Tests for trend were conducted by assigning the medians of mineral intake in quintiles treated as a continuous variable. Effect modification was examined in stratified analyses and was statistically tested by including the cross-product term of the mineral variable (modeled as a continuous variable) and the effect modifier (as a dichotomous variable). Additional adjustment for dietary variables, including folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, fat, carbohydrate, protein, and fiber, did not change the results appreciably; therefore, these variables were not included in the main multivariate model. In this cohort, we previously found that the risk factor profiles of stroke subtypes differ.29 For example, serum total cholesterol concentrations were positively associated with risk of cerebral infarction only, and serum HDL cholesterol concentrations were inversely related to risk of cerebral infarction and subarachnoid hemorrhage but not to intracerebral hemorrhage.29 Therefore, if magnesium reduces stroke risk by influencing cholesterol concentrations or insulin resistance, the beneficial effect of high magnesium intake may be limited to cerebral infarction.

The end point of the study was first-ever stroke that occurred between the date of randomization and December 31, 2004. The strokes were further divided into cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and unspecified stroke. Pulmonary hypertension . During a mean follow-up of 13.6 years (1985-2004), 2702 cerebral infarctions, 383 intracerebral hemorrhages, and 196 subarachnoid hemorrhages were identified in the national registries. The end points were identified by record linkage with the National Hospital Discharge Register and the National Register of Causes of Death. Both registers used the codes of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD): the 8th edition was used until the end of 1986, the 9th edition through the end of 1996, and the 10th edition thereafter. The end points comprised ICD-8 codes 430 through 434 and 436; ICD-9 codes 430, 431, 433, 434, and 436; and ICD-10 codes I60, I61, I63, and I64, excluding ICD-8 codes 431.01 and 431.91 denoting subdural hemorrhage and ICD-9 codes 4330X, 4331X, 4339X, and 4349X representing occlusion or cerebral or precerebral artery stenosis without cerebral infarction. Associations of urinary sodium excretion with cardiovascular events in individuals with and without hypertension: a pooled analysis of data from four studies.

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A recent meta-analysis of 12 randomized clinical trials showed that magnesium supplementation may slightly reduce diastolic blood pressure by 2.2 mm Hg.9 Therefore, a potential hypotensive effect of magnesium intake is small and could only partially explain the inverse association of magnesium intake with cerebral infarction. Excluding systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels from the multivariate model did not materially alter the relationship between these minerals and risk of stroke (data not shown). Serum levels of total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were determined enzymatically (CHOD-PAP method; Boehringer Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany). Recent studies have shown that dietary modifications are an important means of preventing stroke.1 Because hypertension is a strong risk factor for stroke,2 dietary factors that influence blood pressure levels may affect the risk of stroke. Excess weight gain places a woman who is pregnat at risk for diabetes and hypertension, and it may increase the chance for needing a cesarean birth (C-section). Men were excluded from the trial if they (1) had a history of cancer (other than nonmelanoma skin cancer or carcinoma in situ) or other serious disease that might limit long-term participation; (2) received anticoagulant therapy; or (3) used vitamin E, vitamin A, or beta carotene supplements in excess of predefined doses.

Furthermore, adjustment for baseline blood pressure had little effect on the estimated RR relating magnesium intake to cerebral infarction. An inverse association between magnesium intake and cerebral infarction is biologically plausible. As in our study, no association between calcium intake and stroke was found in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.30 The Nurses’ Health Study31 showed an inverse association between intake of calcium, especially dairy calcium, and stroke risk. However, prospective data relating intake of these minerals to risk of stroke are inconsistent.

Dietary intake was assessed at baseline using a detailed and validated food frequency questionnaire. All models were adjusted for age at baseline and supplementation group (α-tocopherol, beta carotene, or both or placebo). Methods We examined the relationship of dietary magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium intake with risk of stroke in a cohort of 26 556 Finnish male smokers, aged 50 to 69 years, who were free from stroke at baseline. For the present analyses, we also excluded men with incomplete dietary data and those with a self-reported history of stroke at baseline, leaving 26 556 men for the analyses. Blood pressure is the force blood exerts on the walls of arteries as it flows through them; so, high blood pressure is when blood flows with too much force.

Background A high intake of magnesium, calcium, and potassium and a low intake of sodium have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of stroke. In this cohort study of middle-aged male smokers, we found that a high magnesium intake was associated with a significant reduced risk of cerebral infarction that was not accounted for by other potential risk factors. However, the strong positive correlation between these minerals and the inevitable measurement error in dietary assessment reduced the ability of the multivariate analysis to discriminate between them. Appareil tension artérielle . We further examined calcium intake from dairy and nondairy sources in relation to risk of stroke and found an inverse relationship between nondairy calcium and cerebral infarction (highest vs lowest quintile: multivariate RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76-0.96). However, this association did not persist after further adjustment for intake of folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and dietary fiber (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.84-1.10). We considered the possibility that the effect of dietary magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium intake on stroke risk might be mediated through blood pressure and that adjustment for blood pressure in our multivariate models might minimize potential associations. Findings from previous studies that have examined the relationship between sodium intake and stroke risk have been inconsistent.