Cardiovasculaires

Quatre raisons pour lesquelles Abraham Lincoln serait doué en Hypertension

It has been suggested that mechanical pumping of portal blood to the liver may correct portal hypertension while increasing portal flow to the liver, which may enhance liver function in cirrhosis. The following keywords were used: liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, pathogenesis, angiogenesis, antiangiogenic therapy. Background & aims: Vascular hyporeactivity to vasoconstrictors contributes to splanchnic arterial vasodilatation and hemodynamic dysregulation in portal hypertension. To investigate whether this hyporeactivity to vasopressors is also present in an in vitro system perfused with a synthetic medium, the responsiveness to graded concentrations of norepinephrine, arginine-vasopressin, and potassium chloride was tested in perfused superior mesenteric arterial beds of normal rats and rats with portal hypertension induced by partial portal vein ligation (PVL). To further characterize the NPY-effects in portal hypertension, we investigated its role for non-receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) of portal vein ligated (PVL) and sham-operated rats. Methods: Ex vivo SMA perfusion of PVL and sham rats was used to analyse the effects of NPY on pressure response to non-receptor-mediated vasoconstriction. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a sympathetic cotransmitter, has been shown to improve adrenergic vascular contractility in portal hypertensive rats and markedly attenuate hyperdynamic circulation. This beneficial vasoactive action of NPY adds to its well known more pronounced effects on adrenergic vasoconstriction in portal hypertension making it a promising therapeutic agent in portal hypertension.

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Results: PHG is diagnosed by characteristic endoscopic findings of small polygonal areas of variable erythema surrounded by a pale, reticular border in a mosaic pattern in the gastric fundus/body in a patient with cirrhotic or non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. PHG increases in frequency with more severe portal hypertension, advanced liver disease, longer liver disease duration, presence of esophageal varices, and endoscopic variceal obliteration. Conclusion. Antiangiogenic therapy, selectively directed at unusually growing newly-formed vessels, can be a pathogenetically justified method for treating portal hypertension in liver cirrhosis on its subclinical stage. Materials and methods: In 70 patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension we measured the vWF-Ag concentration and we followed the patients for 90 days. Whether portal hypertension is maintained only by an increased portal venous resistance or also by an increased blood flow within the portal venous system is still open to speculation. Thus, an increase in intrahe- patic resistance in conjunction with increased portal venous inflow, mediated through splanchnic dilation, contributes to the development of portal hypertension. Comment faire baisser l hypertension rapidement . The importance of the primary vascular origin of portal hypertension is em- phasized by the utility of current therapies aimed at revers- ing these hemodynamic alterations, such as nitrates, which reduce portal pressure through direct intrahepatic vasodila- tation, and β blockers and octreotide, which reduce splanch- nic vasodilatation and portal venous inflow.

MMP-8 has been implicated in atherosclerotic plaque destabilization through its capacity to thin the protecting fibrous cap, thus rendering it more vulnerable to rupture. It is shown that, so far, only tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been tested in patients with liver cirrhosis as an antiangiogenic therapy for portal hypertension. Biopsy of the liver revealed NRH as the underlying cause. If appropriate, blood tests may be considered to look for an underlying cause of high blood pressure (secondary hypertension) including abnormal thyroid or adrenal gland function. Transjugular-intrahepatic-portosystemic-shunt and liver transplantation are highly successful ultimate therapies because they reduce the underlying portal hypertension. Considering the splanchnic hyperdynamic state theory of the portal hypertension, may be creating an A-V fistulation on the veins draining to the esophagus with disconnection of its branches toward the liver is approachable in swine. Unlike the “backward flow”-type esophageal varix, the treatment strategies of the “forward flow”-type esophageal varix of hyperdynamic state caused by splanchnic A-V shunts should be considered differently. With increasing evidence on the role of endogenous nitric oxide in the splanchnic hyperdynamics, the existence of esophageal varix induced by hepatopetal flow of portal hypertension in a cirrhotic patient has become more convincing.

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Herein, we report 2 cases of esophageal varix caused by local hyperdynamic states of the right, left and posterior gastric arteries, respectively. Both are caused by activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Drugs such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II type receptor 1 blockers, which target the components of the classical renin angiotensin system (RAS), are expected to reduce intrahepatic vascular tone by reducing extracellular matrix deposition and vasoactivity of contractile cells and thereby improve portal hypertension. Nonselective β-adrenergic receptor antagonists, particularly propranolol, are used to prevent bleeding after an acute episode or for chronic bleeding. Iron deficiency anemia from chronic bleeding may require iron replacement therapy. Many studies have shown that estrogen may exert cardioprotective effects and reduce the risk of hypertension and coronary events. In the present article the authors offer an overview of possible mechanisms of action of MMPs and TIMPs and their predictive value in estimating the cardiovascular risk. This paper is aimed at reviewing existing literature that investigates the role of angiogenesis in portal hypertension pathogenesis in liver cirrhosis and the possibilities of its antiangiogenic therapy, along with the description of angiogenesis inhibiting drugs and their action mechanisms. The experimental studies reviewed in this paper investigate the action mechanism of angiogenesis inhibiting drugs and their effect on portal hypertension.

Mieux comprendre la capacité fonctionnelle du coe… - Revue.. EFFECTS ON THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM AND ON CHROMOSOMES Although studies in animals have shown that A-9-THC (the major psychoactive constituent of marijuana) lowers the concentration in blood serum of pituitary hormones (gonadotropins) that control reproductive functions, it is not known if there is a direct effect on reproductive tissues. The effect of E(2) was significantly potentiated by the NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, and a cGMP analogue, 8-bromo-cGMP. In contrast, the change in the membrane fluidity evoked by E(2) was attenuated in the presence of the NO synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, and asymmetric dimethyl-L-arginine.

The inclusion criteria were limited to the antiangiogenic therapy of portal hypertension.

The treatment of the current cases was unsatisfactory due to improper recognition of the local hyperdynamic state before the treatment. To determine the possible role of prostacyclin (PGI2) as a mediator of the splanchnic hyperemia seen with portal hypertension, the portal and mesenteric hemodynamics in normal and portal hypertensive rabbits were studied before and after cyclo-oxygenase blockade. Calcul tension artérielle sans appareil . We studied hemodynamic alterations in normal and three models of portal hypertension at rest, after hemorrhage, and after resuscitation to determine the role of hepatic dysfunction in the splanchnic vascular response to hemorrhage in portal hypertension. The inclusion criteria were limited to the antiangiogenic therapy of portal hypertension. To resolve these differences, splanchnic and systemic hemodynamics were evaluated in cirrhotic rats, induced by CCl4.

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The hemodynamic data in cirrhotic rats provided evidence that supports the role of an increased portal blood flow in portal hypertension and gives a quantitative definition of splanchnic hemodynamics in intrahepatic portal hypertension. Endoscopic evaluation of varices is not only an indirect method of assessing portal hypertension, but it is also an invasive technique. If questioned, up to 70% of cirrhotic patients undergoing evaluation for liver transplantation complain of dyspnea. Portal hypertension is a frequent syndrome that develops in patients with chronic liver diseases, which are one of the most common causes of death in adults worldwide. Histologic examination showed parenchymal damage was absent in normal and portal vein ligation, severe in common bile duct ligation, and moderate in carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis. The results of the present study showed that E(2) significantly increased the membrane fluidity and improved the microviscosity of erythrocyte membranes, partially mediated by an NO- and cGMP-dependent pathway. Plasma TIMP-1 concentration is also increased in acute coronary syndrome and serum TIMP-1 is associated with the presence of carotid lesions as well. Portal hypertension, the most important complication with cirrhosis of the liver, is a serious disease. En effet, la dyspnée reflète souvent la survenue d’une complication importante de l’HTA parmi lesquelles une insuffisance cardiaque décompensée, une insuffisance rénale, voire une sténose sévère des artères rénales.

Dr Boulé. Avant d’expliquer : “Il peut donc être envisagé l’implantation d’un défibrillateur pour éviter la survenue d’une mort subite. Il s’agit d’un petit boitier mis en place sous la peau, relié à une sonde surveillant en permanence le rythme cardiaque.” En cas de survenue d’un emballement grave du cœur, l’appareil restaure automatiquement le rythme cardiaque normal, et évite ainsi la survenue d’un décès subit. Depuis plusieurs années, sous l’impulsion du Pr. Même si vous êtes dans une situation non stressante, n’interrompez jamais votre traitement sous peine de voir l’hypertension réapparaître. Elles ne dispensent pas d’une consultation et d’un traitement médical si nécessaire, même si elles apportent un soutien efficace et précieux. Interprétation tension artérielle . Ne pas fumer et se faire accompagner pour le sevrage tabagique.